1 Table of Contents Con n e ct ic u t Department of Transpo rta tion Ce nt ra l Naugatu ck Valley M etropolit an Plannin g Organiza tio n Grea ter Br idg epo rt Valley M etropolit an Plannin g Organi zatio n Sout h C ent ra l Re gion Me tropolit an Planni ng Organiza tio n Sout h W estern Re gio n Me tropolit an Plannin g Organi zatio n Hous atoni c Valley M etropolit an Plannin g Organi za tio n PM 2.5 Air Q u al ity C o n fo rm ity D eterm inati on of the 201 5 Region al Tra nspo rtation Plans and the FY 2018 -2021 Tra nspo rtation Im prove m ent Pr og ra m s A m endme nt s for the Connec ticut po rtio n of the NY -NJ-CT PM 2.5 Attainm ent/ Ma int enance Area May 2017 Note: The five Connecticut MPOs (CNVMPO, GBVMPO, HVMPO, SCRCOG and SWRMP O) are pa rt of the larger NY – NJ-CT PM2.5 Attainment/Maintenance Area and this do cume nt incl ud es the do cume ntation of the regional analysis for the entire Connecticut po rtion of the Attainm ent/Mainte nance area, as well as do cumentation and info rmation on the processes an d procedu res undertaken by CTDOT, coo rdinator of the Air Qua lity Con formity for the five Connecticut Met ropo litan Planning Org anizatio ns. 2 Table of Contents 1) Overview…………… … …………………………… ……………………… … … 4 2) Purpose and Need…… ……………………………… …………………… …….. 5 3) Conne ctic ut PM2. 5 Attainment Mai ntenance Area……………………………… 12 4) Interagency Consultation…………………………… ……….……… … …… …. 12 5) Public Consultation………………………………… …..… ………………… ….. 13 6) PM 2.5 Emission Analysis…………………………… ………….… .…… ………. 14 7) Connecticut PM2.5 Regional Emissions Analysis Compo nents………… … …… 15 8) Annu al Inventories for PM2.5………… ……………… ………….……… … ……. 15 9) VMT and Emission Analysis………………………… ……………… … ……… … 16 10) Analysis Results……… ……………………………… …………………………… 39 11) Conclusion………… ……………………………… ………………… …… … …… 40 3 Lis t of Tabl es Table 1: Adequate Motor Ve hicle Emission Budgets – MOV ES2 010 b……… … …… … …. 14 Table 2: List of Connecticut Ne twork Changes…… … …… … …… … ……… … …… … …. 17 Table 3: Direct PM2.5 and NOx Emissions Budget Test Results (tons per year )……… … … 40 Lis t of Figu res Figure 1: Connect icut Portion of the NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Attai nment/M aintenance Area… …… 10 Lis t of App endice s App endix A: Interagency Consultat ion Mee ting Minutes…… … …… …… ……… … …… … … 41 App endix B: PM2.5 and NOx Precursor Emission Outputs By Analysis Year………… … ……. 45 App endix C: PM2.5 Input Files to MOVES 2010 b………………… … …… ……… … …… … …. 47 App endix D: Acronyms……………………………………………………. .…… 104 4 R egio n al Em issions A na lysis 1) OVER VIEW In March 20 07, th e Me trop olitan Plann ing Organizations (M POs) in Conn ecticut proposed to up date th eir Long Range Tr anspo rtation Plans (LRTPs). These revision s to Con ne cticut’s LRTPs req uired a new multi-state transportation conf ormity de termination for fine particulate matte r (PM 2.5). Therefore, th e Novemb er 2006 NY-NJ -CT PM 2.5 no n-attainmen t area conf ormity determination was revised to reflect emission projections from th e new or revised, non -exempt projects in Conn ecticut ’s 200 7-2035 LRTPs. On April 17, 2007, the Conne cticut De partmen t of Energy and Environ ment al Prot ection (CTDEEP) submi tted to th e U.S. En viro nmen tal Prot ection Age ncy (EPA) its State Implemen tation Plan (SIP) Re vision for Establishment of Interim Progress for the Fine Particle National Am bien t Air Qual ity Standard (NAA QS) and early fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) transportation conformity emission budge ts. The SIP revision ide ntified year 2009 annu al direct PM 2.5 and annu al nitrogen oxides (NO x) M otor Ve hicle Emission Bud gets (M VE Bs) associa ted with the Interim/ Early Progress SIP. The annu al 2009 M VEBs for th e Conn ecticut portion of th e New Yor k-Northern New Jer sey-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Area we re 360 tons per year of dire ct PM 2.5 and 18,279 tons per year of NO x.1 Th ese emissi ons bu dgets were foun d adeq uate as of Jun e 20 , 2007 and were approved into the Con necticut SIP on August 30, 2007. The annu al 2009 mot or vehicle emissions bu dgets for the Con ne cticut portion of th e New Yor k- North ern New Jer sey-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Area were de termined adeq uate through a May 24, 20 07 letter from Anne E. Arn old, M anager Air Quali ty Planning Uni t, EPA New England Reg ional Office to Anne Go bin, Chief CTDEE P and a June 5, 2007 Federal Regist er Notice of Adeq ua cy. The adeq uacy pro cess ma de the MV EBs effe ctive June 20, 2007 for transportation con formity dete rminations. The annu al 2009 motor vehicle emissions bu dgets for th e Conn ecticut portion of the New Yor k- North ern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ -CT PM 2.5 Ar ea we re app roved into th e Con ne cticut SIP through a direct final rulemaking Fed eral Register on August 30, 2007 (72 FR 50029). This SIP element “2009 Early Progress Direct PM 2.5 and NOx M otor Vehicle Emission Budgets (M VEB s) for Tran sportation Conformity Pu rposes; Conne cticut; New Yo rk-Northern New Jer sey-Lon g Island, NY -NJ-CT PM 2.5 Area” became effective on Octo ber 29, 20 07. On Decemb er 14, 2009, EPA ’s final rule desi gna ting areas for th e 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS became effective. This Air Quality Conformity analysis is being prepared to meet bo th th e 1997 Ann ual PM 2.5 NAAQS and the 20 06 24 -hou r PM 2.5 NAAQS . 1 Lett er from U.S. EPA to Anne Gob in, Chief CTDE P, dated May 24 , 200 7. 5 This rep ort was prep ared to documen t th e emission s analysis that was com pleted to evaluate Fis cal Year 201 5-20 18 Conformity of th e Statew ide Transportation Improvemen t Program (STIP) Ame ndments and the 2015 LRTPs to the SIP for air quality. This submi ttal incorporates th e FY 2015 – 2018 STIP and 2015 LRTPs from Con ne cticut ’s Regional Planning Organi zations (R PO), and the 2017 and 2025 M OVES2 010b emi ssions budgets dee med ade quate by EPA and effective as of February 20, 20132. EPA’s guidance for mainten ance plans calls for a demo nstration of cont inue d compliance by s howing that futu re emi ssions du ring the mainte nance pe riod will not ex ceed the level of emi ssion in th e attainment inven tory. The en d of the mainten ance period was established as 20 25, consistent with th e CAA section 175A (a) requ iremen t that the plan provide for mainten ance of th e NAAQS for at least 10 yea rs after EPA formally approves the red es ignation req uest. Emi ssion estimate s were develope d for direct PM 2.5, as well as for th e most im portant PM 2.5 pre cursor NO x. Em issio ns are projected to dec rease from the levels in the 20 07 attainment inven tory th rough th e en d of th e mainten ance period in 2025, including in the selected inte rim year of 201 7, thu s prov iding for cont inuing mainte nance of th e NAA QS. The rep ort is sub mitt ed to sa tisfy th e req uirements of th e SIP, as revi sed. 2) PURPOSE AND NEED a – What is Transp or tation Conformity? Transportation Con formity is the process, establishe d by joint guidance from th e United States Department of Tran spo rtation (USDOT) and th e United States Env ironmen tal Prot ection Agency (EPA) that ensures that transportation investmen ts will con tribute to improv ing air qu ality in areas whe re concen trations of certain pollut ant s ex cee d national air quality stand ard s. Transportation conformity as it curren tly exists emerg ed from the passage of env ironmental and transportation leg islation in th e early 19 90s (Clean Air Act Amen dments of 1990 and the Int ermod al Surface Transportation Efficienc y Act of 19 91). EPA promulgated a transportation con formity rule initially in 1993. The latest amen dmen t to th e tran spo rtation conf ormity rule, Transportation Conformity Rule, Amen dmen ts to Implemen t Provisions Containe d in the Safe, Ac count able, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Eq uity Act: A Legacy for Users, Final Ru le was pu blished Janu ary 24, 20 08 (73 FR 44 20). Oth er rec en t con formity rules related to particulate matter include: PM 2.5 and PM 10 Hot -Spo t Analyses in Project-Level Transportation Con formity De termination s for th e New PM 2.5 and 2 Federal Register, February 15, 2013 . EPA-R01-OAR-201 3-0020 ; A-1-FRL -9776-2 Adequacy Sta tus of Motor Ve hicles Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes; Connecticut http:/ /ww w.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013 -02-05/pdf/2013-02492.pdf 6 Exi sting PM 10 National Ambient Air Qual ity Stand ards; Final Rule M arch 10, 2006 (71 FR 12468); Transportation Con formity Rule Amend men ts for th e New PM 2.5 National Am bient Air Quality Standard: PM 2.5 Precursors; Final Ru le M ay 6, 2005 (70 FR 24 280), [Note: On Jun e 1, 2005, (70 FR 31354), EPA pub lished a Fina l Rule correc tion effective June 6, 2005 for Transpo rtation Conformity Rule Amen dme nts for the New PM 2.5Nation al Am bient Air Qua lity Standa rd: PM 2.5 Precurso rs]; and, Transportation Conformity Rule Am end men ts for the New 8-hour Ozone and PM 2.5 National Am bien t Air Quality Standards and M iscellaneou s Revisions for Ex isting Areas; Transportation Conf ormity Rule Amend ment s: Res ponse to Court Decision and Addition al Ru le Ch an ges; Final Rule July 1, 2004 (69 FT 40004). Re cently E PA pub lishe d Transportation Conformity Ru le PM 2.5 and PM 10 Amend men ts, Final Rule March 24, 201 0 (75 FR 1425 9-14 285). Transportation Conformity rulemaking action s can be foun d on EPA’s Office of Transpo rtation and Air Quali ty we b s ite at URL add ress: htt p://www .epa.gov/o taq/statere sou rces/trasconf/con f-regs .htm Transportation con formity wor ks in th e following way:  EPA establishes Nation al Am bient Air Quality Standards (NAAQ S) ba sed on pu blic health research. The standard s set maxim um concentrations of six criteria pollut ants in the am bient (outdo or) air.  EPA designates parts of th e cou ntry where th e NAAQS are ex ceede d as a “non- attainmen t area.” States th at have non -attainment areas with in th eir bo und aries are req uired to submi t State Im plemen tation Plans (SIPs) to EPA to demon strate how the non-attainment areas will im prove the ir air quality and meet th e NAAQS in the tim eframe spe cified by the Clean Air Act.  Non-attainment areas must conf orm their tra nspor tation plans, programs and projects to th eir area’s mot or vehicle emissio ns bu dget that is containe d within its SIP. If a sta te does no t yet have SIP emi ssions bu dgets in place, interim emi ssion tests must be pas sed to show conf ormity. Un der th e Conformity Rules, th e following test for PM 2.5 and NOx must be me t:  TEST: Emissions from fut ure Action Scenarios from 20 17 on, must be less than th e 2017 Mo tor Ve hicle Emission Budg ets  TEST: Emissions from fut ure Action Sc enarios from 2025 on, must be less th an the 2025 Mo tor Ve hicle Emission Budg ets 7 To do this, MPOs use a model create d by the EPA th at applies emission factors to th e region ’s vehicle flee t. These emissi on factors are combined with vehicle miles traveled data, which is gen erated by an MPO’s travel deman d model. The trav el de man d mod el uses the region’s highway networ k, estimated trav el con ditions and demographic data to es tima te where trips begin and end. It is im portant to note th at th e transportation con formity de termination is based on the mix of new and ex isting projects and th e current infrastructure. Some projects, par ticularly highway capacity expansions, may be individually de leterious to air qu ality but are offset by be neficial initiatives such as new transit projects and engineering imp rovem ents th at mitiga te local congestion or red uce vehicular travel. The conformity regulations rec ognize th is balance betwee n projects that increase and red uce emissions by req uiring that M POs de monstrate that the overall set of investmen ts moves th e reg ion to ward cleane r air, in kee ping with EP A policies. b – Ba ckground on Fi ne Pa rticulate Matter ( PM 2.5) Fine particulate matte r, also called PM 2.5, is a mixture of microsco pic solids and liquid droplets su spen ded in air, where th e size of the particles is equal to or less than 2.5 micrometers (abou t one-thirtieth th e diamet er of a huma n hair). Fine pa rticles can be emitted direc tly (such as smoke from a fire, or as a componen t of auto mobile exhaust) or be forme d indirectly in the air from powe r plant, ind ustrial and mobile sour ce emissio ns of gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The health eff ects associa ted with exposure to fine pa rticles are serious. Sc ien tific stu dies ha ve shown significant a ssociations between eleva ted fine particle levels and premature death . Effects associated with fine particle exposure include ag grav ation of resp iratory and card iovas cular disease (as indicated by increased hospital admissions, emergency ro om visits, absences from school or wor k, and restricted activity da ys), lung disea se, dec reased lun g function, as thma attac ks, and certain card iovas cular problems such as heart attac ks and card iac arrhythmia. W hile fine particles are un healthy for anyone to breath e, peo ple with heart or lung disease, asth matics, olde r adults, and children are es pecially at ris k. c – PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard s In July 1997, EPA issue d NAAQS for PM 2.5, designed to prot ect th e pu blic from exposure to PM 2.5 at levels that may cause he alth problem s. The stand ard s include an annu al standard set at 15 microgra ms per cub ic meter, bas ed on the th ree year average of ann ual PM 2.5 8 concent ration s and a 24-hour standard of 65 mi crograms per cubic meter based on the thre e- year average of 24 -hou r concentrations. In gene ral, areas nee d to mee t both standards to be cons ide red to attain PM 2.5 NAAQS. Ar eas not mee ting the PM 2.5 NAAQS are called PM 2.5 non -attainmen t areas. These areas have had or con tribu ted to PM 2.5 levels higher than allowed und er the N AAQS. No n-attainmen t areas are subject to transportation con formity, through wh ich local transportation and air quality officials coordinate plann ing efforts to en sure that transportation projects do no t hinde r an area’s ability to reach its clean air goals. Transportation conf ormity requiremen ts become effective on e year after an area is designated as a no n-attai nment area. EPA issued official designations for the PM 2.5 standard on Decemb er 17, 2004 and mad e mod ifications in April 2005. On April 5, 2005, de signations un der the nation al air qu ality standards for fine particle pollution or PM 2.5 became effective. Th erefore, by April 4, 200 6, all PM 2.5 non-attainment areas we re req uired to implemen t transpo rtation con formity. Under the EPA designation, non -attainmen t areas are req uired to me et the PM 2.5 NAAQS as soon as pos sible, but no later th an 2010. EPA may gran t attainmen t date extensions of up to five years in areas with mo re se vere PM 2.5 problems and where emissions cont rol measures are no t availa ble or fea sible. EPA has de termined that mee ting the PM 2.5 NAAQS nationwide will ann ually prevent at least 15,000 premature deaths; 75,000 cases of chronic bronchitis; 10,000 hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiova scular disease; hund red s of tho us and s of occurrences of ag grava ted asthma; and 3.1 million pers on-days of missed work due to sympt oms rel ated to particle pollut ion exposure. On April 17, 2007, Connecticut Dep artment of Environ ment al Prote ction submi tted a SIP Re vision for 200 9 Early Progress Direct PM2.5 and NOx M oto r Vehicle Em ission Budg ets fo r Transportation Conformity Purposes; Connecticut; New York -Northern New Jersey -Long Island, NY-NJ -CT PM2.5 Ar ea. (Se e http://www.regulations.gov search on docket number EPA -R01 – OAR – 2007 -0373). States with designated PM 2.5 non -attainmen t areas had to submi t SIPs that out line how the y will me et the PM 2.5 NAAQS within th ree years of April 5, 200 5. On Nov ember 18, 2008 CTDEE P sub mitt ed a SIP Rev ision “Attainmen t Demo nstration for th e 199 7 Ann ual PM 2.5 Nation al Am bient Air Quality Standard for the Con ne cticut portion of the New Yor k-No rthern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Non -attainmen t Area”. EPA dete rmine d Con ne cticut’s PM 2.5 attainmen t demonstration SIP to be admi nistratively and te chn ically com plete on Janu ary 8, 2009. 9 On Octobe r 17, 2006, EPA issued a final rule which tighte ned th e 24-ho ur PM 2.5 NAAQS from the 1997 level of 65 mi crograms per cubic meter (ug/ m3) to 35 ug/m 3 (71 FR 611 44). In this final rule, EPA retained the 1997 ann ual PM 2.5 NAA QS of 15.0 ug/m3. EPA ’s final rule designating non-attainment areas for the 20 06 PM 2.5 NAAQ S, pu blishe d in the Fe deral Reg ister on Nov em ber 13, 20 09, was effective Decemb er 14, 2009. A MPO and the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S.DOT) must ma ke a conf ormity determination with regard to the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS for the metrop olitan transportation plan and TIP with in on e year after the effective date of the initial non-attai nme nt designation for this NAAQS, as stated in 40CFR Part 93, “Transportation Conformity Rule PM 2.5 and PM 10 Ame ndments; Final Rule”, dated M arch 24, 2010. On June 22, 2012, CT DE EP submitte d a “PM 2.5 Redesignation/ M ainte nance State Implemen tation Plan” which establishe d new Mo tor Vehicle Emission Budgets for 20 17 and 2025 using new EPA req uired software, M OVES 2010b. These budgets were dee med adequ ate by EPA and effective as of Feb ruary 20, 2013. M onitoring da ta show that th e NY-NJ-CT multi-state area has achieved com plia nce with bot h th e 1997 annu al and 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS since 2009. On Novemb er 15, 20 10, EP A pu blished a formal de termination that the NY -NJ-CT multi-state area had achiev ed mea sured attainmen t of the 1997 annu al PM 2.5 NAAQS. EP A pu blished a similar finding for th e 2006 24 – hour PM 2.5 NAAQS on Dec ember 31, 20 12. DEEP monitoring data also ind icate that Conn ecticut com plies with th e 2012 ann ual NAA QS. On June 22, 2012, DE EP formally submi tted to th e EPA, th e final PM 2.5 red esignation reque st and maint enance plan State Implemen tation Plan (SIP) for Connecticut’s portion of th e NY -NJ – CT PM 2.5 Non attainmen t Area. The plan demo nstrated that Conn ecticut’s air quality met bot h th e 19 97 annual and the 2006 24 -ho ur PM 2.5 NAAQS due to a combination of national, region al and local cont rol measures im plemen ted to red uce emissions and presented a mainten ance plan th at ensures con tinu ed attainmen t th rough th e year 202 5. On Sept emb er 24 , 2013, EP A pu blished its approv al of th e PM 2.5 red es ignation req uest, establishing Octobe r 24, 2013 as the effective date of redesignation to attainment/ mainte nance for Conn ecticut’s portion of the NY – NJ -CT Area for bot h the 1997 ann ual and 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS. This report was prepared to show conf ormity for th e 1997 Ann ual PM 2.5 NAAQS and the 2006 PM 2.5 24 -hou r NAAQS by me eting new M OVES2 010b 2017 and 2025 mot or vehicle bu dgets as discus sed above. 10 The Me trop olitan Planning Organ izations (M POs) with in this area are as follows: 1. Sou th We ste rn Regi on M etropoli tan Pla nning Organi zation (SWRM PO) 2. Housat onic Valley M etropoli tan Pla nning Org anization (HVMPO) 3. Central Nauga tuck Valley M etropo litan Planning Organ ization (CNV M PO) 4. Greater Bridgeport Valley M etropolitan Planning Or ganization (GBVM PO) 5. Sout h Cent ral Region Me trop olitan Plann ing Organization (SCRM PO) Figure 1 bel ow shows the Connecticut count ies include d in th e PM 2.5 attainment /maint enance area . Figure 1: Connecticut Portion of the NY -NJ-CT PM 2.5 Attainment /Ma intenance Area 11 d – PM 10 Attain me nt/M aintenance Area EPA previou sly designated the City of New Hav en as No nattainmen t with respect to the Nation al Ambien t Air Quali ty Stand ard s (NAAQS) for particulate matter with a nominal diamet er of ten microns or less (PM 10). The PM 10 Nonattainmen t statu s in New Hav en was a local problem stemming from activities of several busines ses located in the Stiles Stree t section of th e City. Numero us violation s in the late 1980’s and early 19 90’s of Se ction 22 a-174-18 (Fugitive Dust) of CTD EEP re gulations in that se ction of the city led to a no nattainmen t des ignation (CTDE EP, 1994: Narrative Con necticut De partment of En ergy and Env iron mental Prot ection, State Implemen tation Plan Re vision For PM 10, March 19 94). Corrective a ction s were subseq uen tly iden tified in th e State Implemen tation Plan and implemen ted, with no violation s of the PM 10 NAAQS since the mid-1990’s. All construction activities un dertaken in the City of New Haven are required to be performed in com plia nce with Section 22 a-174-18 (Con trol of Particulate “Emissions”) of the CTDEE P regulation s. All reasonable available con trol measures must be implemente d du ring construction to mitiga te particulate matt er emi ssions, including wind -blow n fugitive dust, mud and dirt carry out , and re-en traine d fugitive emi ssion from mobile eq uipmen t. Th e projects contained in th e STIP and Plans, designated wi thin the City of Ne w Haven, are exp ected to have little effect on the overall projected vehicle mi les of trav el for the area and are not exp ected to cause significant add itional air borne particulat e matter to be generated. Th e transportatio n projects initia ted in Ne w Hav en are not designed to enh ance developme nt in th e area. There fore, th e projects und ertaken in this area will no t hav e a detrimental effect on PM 10 in Ne w Haven . On October 13 , 200 5, EPA pub lished in the Federal Regis ter (Vol. 70, No. 197 ), approval of a requ est by CTDEE P for a Limited Mai ntenance Plan and redesignatio n of th e Ne w Haven No nattai nme nt Area to Attainme nt for th e National Ambient Air Quality Stand ards for PM 10. This direct final rule became effective on De cembe r 12, 2005. As with limited mainten ance plans for oth er po llut ants, emissions bud gets are con sidered to satisfy transportation con formity’s “b udget test”. However, fut ure “p roject level” conf ormity determination may req uire “h ot spot ” PM 10 analy ses for new tran spo rtation projects with significant die sel traff ic in ac cordance with EPA’s Final Rule for “PM 2.5 and PM 10 Hot -Spo t Analyses in Pro ject-level Transportation Conformity Rule PM 2.5 and PM 10 Amend men ts; Final Rule (75 FR 42 60, M arch 24, 2010) which beca me eff ective on April 23, 20 10. 12 3) CON NECTICUT PM 2.5 ATTAIN M ENT M AIN TENANCE AREA The New Jersey – New York – Conn ecticut multi-state non-attainment area was des ignated by EPA beca use th is region’s air quality fails to me et th e ann ual PM 2.5 NAAQS. As EPA Ne w England has det ermined th e M OVES2010 b 2017 and 2025 moto r vehicle emissio ns bu dgets sub mitt ed on June 22, 2012 to be adequ ate for transportation conform ity purposes, the emissio ns analysis in this repo rt will be limited to these areas only and the bu dgets effective as of February 20, 2013. The non-attainment areas un der th e 2006 PM 2.5 24 -hou r NAAQS are the same as unde r the 1997 PM 2.5 non -attainmen ts areas. Since the 1997 PM 2.5 non -attainmen t area has an adequ ate bu dget, E PA states th at to be consistent with the Clea n Air Act, the areas must mee t the bu dget test for th e 20 06 PM 2.5 NAAQS using existi ng ade quate or approved SIP bu dgets for th e 1997 PM 2.5 NAAQS. Effective Octo ber 24, 2013, the Connecticut portion of the New Jersey – New York – Conne cticut multi-state PM 2.5 No n-Attainmen t Areas were red esignated as Attainmen t M ainten ance. 4) IN TERAGEN CY CO NSULTATION An Int eragency Consultation M ee ting was he ld onFebruary 7, 2 0 17 to review th e air quality codes for projects fun ded in th e regions ’ Transpo rtation Im provemen t Plans and the 2015 Lon g Range Tran spo rtation Plans. The mee ting also discussed the analysis years to be mode led. The project Air Quality coding is as follows: CC – Con formity Analysis Complete d M – Mod eled in the Dep artmen t’s highway or transit networ ks NM – Requ ires mod eling and will be included int o th e De partmen t’s highw ay and transit networks prior to conf ormity analysis NRS –a highway or tran sit project on a fac ility that does no t ser ve reg ion al nee ds or is not normally include d in th e regional travel simulation model and does not fit int o an exem pt project category in Table 2 or 3 of th e Final Rule (40 CFR 93). RS – Regio nally significant refers to a t ransportation project in th e TIP and /or STIP (othe r than an exemp t project) that is on a fac ility which ser ves regional tran sportation nee ds (su ch as access to and from th e area out side of th e region , major activity centers in the regio ns, major p lanne d devel opm ent such as new retail malls, sports complexes, etc., or 13 transportation terminals as well as most terminals themselves) and would normally be included in the mode ling of a metrop olitan area’s tran spo rtation networ k, includ ing at a mi nim um all principal arterial highways and all fixed guide-way transit facilities th at offer an alternative to regional high way tra vel (40 CFR 93.101). Once a pro ject is iden tified as region ally si gnificant , it must be include d in th e analysis regar dless of fun ding source. Ex em pt Project – a project listed in Table 2 or 3 of the Final Rule (40 CFR 93) th at primarily enh ances safet y or aesthe tics, maint ains mass tran sit, con tinu es curren t levels of ridesharing, or bu ilds bicycle and ped estrian facilities . X6 – Project exem pt from the req uirement to de termine con formity und er 40 CFR 93.126 X7 – Project ex empt form regi onal emission s analysis requiremen ts unde r 40 CFR 93.127 X8 – Traffic synchron ization projects may be app roved, funde d and im plemente d withou t satisfying conf ormity requ iremen ts un der 40 CFR 93.128 It was agreed up on that the 201 1 vehicle reg istration data file wo uld be utilized for this Conformity De termination a nd CTDEEP and CT DOT staff would discuss u pdate of this file at a May 2016 me eting . A copy of th e mi nut es of th e Int eragency Consultation Mee ting is includ ed in Appen dix A, as well as a list of attende es and call-in participants. The final emissions analysis was prepared and th e rep ort was distribu ted for th e 30 -day pub lic commen t period. 5) PUBL IC CONSULTA TION As req uired by the Final Ru le, the transportation confo rmity pro cess must includ e public consultation on th e emissio ns analysis and conf ormity dete rmination for PM 2.5 determinations. This includ es posting of releva nt document ation and analysis on a “c learingho use” we bpage maintaine d th rou gh the interagency consultation process. All M POs in the Conn ecticut PM 2.5 non-attainmen t area must provide thirty-day pu blic commen t pe riods and address any commen ts receive d. For th is PM 2.5 transpo rtation conf ormity determ ina tion , all Conn ecticut M POs will hold a thirty-day pub lic commen t peri od. 14 6) PM 2.5 EM ISSIONS AN AL YSIS As stated above, EPA has foun d that the 20 17 and 2025 M VEBs in th e Jun e 22, 2012 Conne cticut SIP re vision are adequ ate for transportation con formity purposes and effective as of February 20, 20 13. Table 1 shows th e M OVES2010 b M VE Bs for 2017 and 202 5. Table 1: Adequate M oto r Vehi cle Emission s Bud gets – M OV E20 10b Direct PM 2 .5 NOx (Tons/Year) (Tons/Year) Ye ar 201 7 MVEBs for the Connecticut 57 5.8 12,791 .8 porti on of the New York- Northern New Jersey-, Lo ng Island, NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Area Ye ar 202 5 MVEBs for the Connecticut 51 6.0 9,728 .1 porti on of the New York- Northern New Jersey-, Lo ng Island, NY-NJ-CT PM 2.5 Area The PM 2.5 bu dget emissions are th e am oun t to which projected fut ure emissions resulting from implemen tation of Plans and TIPs will be compared. Per 75 FR 14271, as the non-attainment bound ary for th e 2006 Conn ecticut portion of the NY – NJ -CT PM 2.5 Non -attainmen t Ar ea is exactly th e same as th e 1997 PM 2.5 boun dary, th e bu dget test for th e 20 06 PM 2.5 NAAQS must use th e existing adequate or app roved SIP bu dgets for the 1997 PM 2.5 NAA QS. EPA regu lations require that emissions analysis be cond ucted for spec ific analysis years. Se ction 93.119(g) of the Final Rule states th at the se analysis years must include :  Attainmen t or near term year  The last (horizon) year of th e region s’ lon g range transportation plan  An int ermed iate year or years such that the analysis ye ars are no more than 10 years apart 15 The attainmen t year is based up on the Clean Air Act section 172(a)(2) which states that the attainmen t year for the 2006 PM 2.5 areas will be 2014, five years after th e eff ective date of des ignations (December 14, 2009). The year 20 17 is also with in five years (nea r-term) of the year in which th e analysis is being perfo rme d (2015). Furthermore, because th is attainment /mainte nance area includes multiple MPOs, the last year of all of the M PO s’ Plans must be include d as analy sis years. W ith in the Co nn ecticut PM 2.5 attainmen t area, the plan horizo n year is 2040. Int ermed iate years of 2025 and 2035 have be en selected so that no two- analysis years are more than 10 years apart. Th erefore, the analysis years for this conf ormity determination are 2017, 2025, 203 5 and 2040. 7) CON NECTICUT PM 2.5 RE GIO NAL EM ISS IONS ANAL YSIS CO M PONEN TS PM 2.5 emissions can result from bot h direct and indirect sources. Ga soline and diesel on -road vehicles em it bot h direct PM 2.5 and oth er gases that react in the air to form PM 2.5 . Direct PM 2.5 emissio ns can result from particles in exhaust fume s, from brake and tire we ar, from road du st kicke d up by vehicles, and from highway and transit construction. Ind irect PM 2.5 emissio ns can result from one or more of several exhaust com pone nts, including nitrogen oxides (NOx), vola tile orga nic compoun ds (VO Cs), sulfur oxides (SO x), and ammonia (NH3). For the region al analy sis of direct PM 2.5 emissions, EPA has ruled th at bot h exhaust and brake/tire we ar must be include d. However, EPA has also ruled that emissio ns analysis for direct PM 2.5 sho uld includ e ro ad du st only if road dust is foun d to be a significant contribut or to PM 2.5 by either the EPA Regio nal Admi nistrator or a state air quality age ncy. For the Conne cticut PM 2.5 no n-attainmen t area, ne ithe r th e EPA Region al Admi nistrators nor th e state air quality agency have found that road dust is a significant PM 2.5 contribut or. For th e regional analysis of indirect PM 2.5 emission s (also called PM 2.5 precursor s), EPA has iden tified fou r poten tial transportation-related PM 2.5 precursors: NO x, VO Cs, SO x, and NH3. The only indirect PM 2.5 compo nen t that nee ds to be considered in th e Con necticut PM 2.5 non – attainmen t area is NO x. 8) ANNUAL IN VENTO RIES FOR PM 2.5 Bec ause th e multi-state PM 2.5 non-attainment area did no t me et th e ann ual PM 2.5 NAAQS, the emissio ns analysis for PM 2.5 cons idered ann ual emi ssions. Gu ida nce from EPA (dated Nov em ber, 2015) presen ted two possible op tions for deve lop ing an ann ual invento ry before a SIP is develope d: using a typical seas onal day or an annual inve nt ory th at is based on mon thly es timtes. The twelve-mont h app roach for the Conn ecticut PM 2.5 no n-attainmen t area was utilize d. 16 9) VEHICLE M ILES OF TR AVEL AND E M IS SIONS ANALYSIS Ve hicle M iles of Tra vel (VMT) estimates we re de ve lop ed from th e Conne cticut Department of Transportation’s (CTDO T’s) statewide network-bas ed travel model sup plemen ted by off-mode l analysi s. The 20 15 travel model networ k, to th e exten t practical, represen ts all state highways and major conn ecting non-state streets and roads as well as th e rail, local bu s and express bus systems th at current ly exist. Future highway ne two rks for 2018, 2020, 2025 and 20 30 and transit networ ks for 2016, 2020, 2030 and 2040 we re bu ilt by adding STIP, TIP and LRT P projects (prog ramme d for op ening after 2 015) to th e 2015 ne twor k. Th ese networ ks we re used to run trav el models and cond uct emi ssions analysis for the years 20 18, 2025, 2035 and 2040. Ta ble 2 lists th e projects for ea ch mod el analy sis year for wh ich ne two rk cha nges we re req uired. 17 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES 2018 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT CAPITAL REGION 0131 -0190 Remove Bridge Number 00518 Reconstruct 10/322 Intersection 1/1 0/0 ROUTE 10 SOUTHINGTON CCD 11/2017, TIP BRIDGE REMOVAL GREATER BRIDGEPORT 0015 -TMP1 Realignment of Lafayette Circle and establishment of bidirectional traffic on Fairfield Avenue 0/1 1/1 LAFAYETTE CIRCLE BRIDGEPORT CCD 2017, TIP REALIGNMENT 0036 -0184 Main Street Derby from Bridge Street to Route 8 South Exit15 On/Off Ramps (Ausonio Street) 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 34 DERBY CCD 2018, TIP WIDENING HOUSATONIC VALLEY 0034 -0347 State Route 806 (Newtown Road) from Old Newtown to Plumtrees & from Eagle to Industrial Plaza, Danbury – Widening from 1 lane each direction to 2 lanes each direction 1/1 2/2 SR 806 NEWTOWN ROAD DANBURY CCD 2016, TIP SOUTH CENTRAL 0079 -XXXX Multiple lane and directional changes in the center of town. Conversion of multiple one way streets to two ways. Conversion of a two way street to one way. Reduction of one lane in each direction for one street CCD 2018, TIP VARIOUS WEST MAIN STREET MERIDEN DIRECTIONAL AND LANE CHANGES 18 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2018 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL (CONT’D) 0092 -0531 Q Bridge Replacement and demolition; Contract E 3/3 5/5 I-95 CCD 2016, TIP NEW HAVEN BRIDGE REPLACEMENT 0092 -0532 Q Bridge Replacement and demolition; Contract B 3/3 5/5 I-95 CCD 2016, TIP NEW HAVEN BRIDGE REPLACEMENT 0092 -0627 Q Bridge Replacement and demolition; Contract B2 3/3 5/5 I-95 CCD 2016, TIP NEW HAVEN BRIDGE REPLACEMENT 0092 -XXXX Removal of North Frontage Road between State Street & Orange Street 1/1 0/0 NORTH FRONTAGE ROAD NEW HAVEN CCD 2016, TIP ROADWAY REMOVAL 0100 -0175 Project to widen Sackett Point Road from 1 lane to 2 lanes CCD 2018, TIP 1/1 2/2 SACKETT POINT ROAD NORTH HAVEN WIDENING 19 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2018 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH WESTERN 0102 -0325 Addition of a through lane on Route 1 Northbound from France Street to Route 53 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 1 NORWALK CCD 2018, TIP WIDENING 0135 -0301 Reconstruction of I -95 off ramps and Atlantic Street in vicinity of Metro North Railroad Bridge No. 08012R 2/2 3/3 ATLANTIC STREET STAMFORD WIDENING CCD 2018, TIP GREATER BRIDGEPORT 0138 -0211 Addition of a through lane on Route 1 Southbound from Nobel Street to Soundview Avenue 1/2 2/2 ROUTE 1 STRATFORD CCD 2018, TIP WIDENING CENTRAL NAUGATUCK VALLEY 0017 -0182 Addition of a second through lane on Route 6 Eastbound from Carol Drive (Mix Street/Brook Street) to Peggy Lane (Camp Street) 1/1 2/1 ROUTE 6 BRISTOL WIDENING CCD 2018, TIP 20 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2020 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT CAPITAL REGION 0051 -0259 Interchange improvements at Routes 4, 6, and 9 including a new EB C/D Roadway N/A I84/RT4/RT6 FARMINGTON BID 12 -31 -08, CCD 2019, TIP INTERCHANGE BSWY 0063 -0703 Relocation and Reconfiguration of Interchange 29 on I-91; New additional lanes Rte. 15 NB from 2 to 3 lanes exit 90 to 0.5 miles beyond Exit 91 3/3 4/3 I-91, EXIT 29 HARTFORD WIDENING CCD 2020 Long Range Plan 0155 -0156 Add an Operational Lane WB between Interchanges 42 & 39A; Add an Operational Lane EB between Interchanges 40 & 41 CCD 2018 3/3 4/4 I-84 WEST HARTFORD OPERATIONAL LANES CENTRAL NAUGATUCK VALLEY 0151 -0273 Interstate 84 2/2 3/3 I-84 CCD 11/2020, TIP WATERBURY WIDENING 0151 -XXXX TIGER Grant includes various roadway changes including reconstruction/extension of Jackson Street. Extension will meet at Freight Street and continue to West Main N/A 1/1 DOWNTOWN AREA WATERBURY ADDED ROADWAY CCD 2019, Long Range Plan 21 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2020 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT GREATER BRIDGEPORT 0015 -HXXX Reconstruct and widen Route 130 from Stratford Avenue bridge to Yellow Mill bridge 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 130 BRIDGEPORT Long Range Plan WIDENING 0124 -0165 **As of 2/15/2011current scope from consultant is spot improvements for from Swan Avenue to Franklin Street Project Manager** Bank Street from West Street to North Main St is full scope being reviewed by consultant 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 67 SEYMOUR MAJOR WIDENING Long Range Plan 0124 -XXXX Between Interchange 22 and 23 to improve access N/A ROUTE 8 Long Range Plan SEYMOUR INTERCHANGE 0124 -XXXX Realign interchange with new extension of Derby Road N/A ROUTE 8 SEYMOUR Long Range Plan INTERCHANGE 0126 -XXXX Interchange 11 – Construct new SB entrance ramp, Widen Bridgeport Avenue N/A ROUTE 8 SHELTON Long Range Plan MAJOR WIDENING 22 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2020 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT GREATER BRIDGEPORT (CONT’D) 0126 -XXXX Between Huntington Avenue and Constitution Boulevard 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 714 SHELTON Long Range Plan MAJOR WIDENING NEW MPO 0138 -0248 Reconstruct Interchange 33 on I -95 to provide full interchange from partial to full diamond interchange N/A I-95, EXIT 33 STRATFORD INTERCHANGE RECONSTRUCTION CCD 2020, Long Range Plan HOUSATONIC VALLEY 0008 -XXXX Operational Improvements on White Street at Locust Avenue and Eighth Avenue 1/1 1/2 WHITE STREET DANBURY CCD 2020, Long Range Plan WIDENING 0096 -0204 Addition of a through lane on Route 34 EB from Wasserman Way to Toddy Hill Road. Addition of I -84 WB and EB on -ramp from Route 34 WB 1/1 2/1 ROUTE 34 NEWTOWN WIDENING CCD 2020, TIP SOUTH CENTRAL 0092 -XXXX Intersection Improvements at Route 69 and Pond Lily Avenue N/A ROUTE 69 NEW HAVEN Long Range Plan INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS 23 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2025 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT CAPITAL REGION 0042 -0317 Removal of the Cambridge Street to Route 2 Westbound On -Ramp and the Sutton Avenue to Route 2 Eastbound Off -Ramp. New through lane on Main Street Northbound underneath Route 2 at the approach to the Route 2 Westbound Off -Ramp 0/1 0/2 ROUTE 2 EAST HARTFORD WIDENING CCD 2021, TIP 0055 -0142 Addition of a second through lane on Route 20/189 Westbound from Route 10/202 to Route 20 and Route 189 split. Addition of a second through lane on Route 20 Westbound from Hungary Road to Route 10/202. Addition of a second through lane on Route 10/202 Northbound from Route 189 to Route 20/189. VARIOUS ROUTE 10 & 202 GRANBY WIDENING CCD 2022, TIP LOWER CT RIVER VALLEY 0082 -0316 Reconfiguration and realignment of Route 17 On – Ramp onto Route 9 from Main Street. Removal of the Harbor Drive to Route 9 Northbound On -Ramp N/A ROUTE 17 MIDDLETOWN INTERCHANGE RECONFIGURATION CCD 2025, TIP 0082 -0318 Removal of a through lane on Route 9 Southbound from just North of Miller Street to just South of Washington Street. Route 9 access to Washington Street/DeKoven Drive has been limited to an on – ramp to Route 9 Southbound. N/A ROUTE 9 MIDDLETOWN REMOVE LANE CCD 2021, TIP 24 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2025 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTHEASTERN Addition of a second through lane on Route 85 Northbound from just North of Chesterfield Road to just South of Deer Run. CCD 2024, TIP 1/1 2/1 0120 -0079 ROUTE 85 MONTVILLE WIDENING SOUTH WESTERN 0102 -0358 Reconfiguration of the interchanges between Route 7, Route 15, and Main Avenue. These changes include multiple new and reconfigured on and off ramps designed to allow access to and from all three major roadways CCD 2025, TIP N/A ROUTE 7 AND ROUTE 15 NORWALK INTERCHANGE RECONFIGURATION 25 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2028 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTHEASTERN ROUTE 82 Removal of a through lane on Route 82 Eastbound from just West of Pine Street to just West of Fairmont Street N/A NORWICH REMOVE LANE CCD 2027, TIP 26 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT CAPITAL REGION VARIOUS TOWNS New Haven/Hartford/Springfield Rail Service Governor’s Transportation Initiative Long Range Plan N/A NEW COMMUTER RAIL 0109 -XXXX New Britain Avenue Cooke Street to Hooker Street 1/1 2/2 PLAINVILLE Long Range Plan ADD LANE CENTRAL NAUGATUCK VALLEY 0080 -0128 Add auxiliary lanes at Int. 17 and on Routes 63/64 1/1 2/2 I-84, Routes 63 -64 Long Range Plan MIDDLEBURY/WATERBURY WIDENING GREATER BRIDGEPORT 0036 -0179 Interchange 18 – Construct New NB entrance ramp. N/A ROUTE 8 Long Range Plan ANSONIA INTERCHANGE 27 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT GREATER BRIDGEPORT (CONT’D) 0036 -XXXX Route 8 Interchange 16 and 17; Construct new NB ramps. Close old ramps N/A ROUTE 8 DERBY Long Range Plan INTERCHANGE 0126 -XXXX Interchange 14 – Construct new SB entrance ramp N/A ROUTE 8 Long Range Plan SHELTON INTERCHANGE HOUSATONIC VALLEY 0018 -0124 South of Old State Road to Route 133 1/1 2/2 US 202 Long Range Plan BROOKFIELD WIDENING 0034 -0288 From Kenosia Avenue easterly to I -84 (Exit 4) 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 6 Long Range Plan DANBURY ADD LANES 0034 -XXXX From I -84 (Exit 2) East to Kenosia Avenue 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 6 Long Range Plan DANBURY ADD LANES 0034 -XXXX From Route I -84 (Exit 6) Northerly to Jeanette Street 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 37 DANBURY Long Range Plan ADD LANES 28 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT HOUSATONIC VALLEY (CONT’D) 0034 -XXXX Between Interchanges 3 and 4.Between Interchanges 12 and 13 3/3 4/4 I-84 DANBURY, NEWTOWN, SOUTHBURY Long Range Plan ADD LANES 0034 -XXXX Widen Kenosia Avenue from Backus Avenue to Vicinity of Lake Kenosia 1/1 2/2 DANBURY ADD LANES Long Range Plan 0034 -XXXX Widen Backus Avenue from Kenosia Avenue to Miry Brook Road 1/1 2/2 DANBURY ADD LANES Long Range Plan 0034 -XXXX From South Street northerly to Boughton Street; 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 53 Long Range Plan DANBURY ADD LANES 0034 -XXXX From Route 53 (Main Street) northerly to I -84 (Exit 6) 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 37 DANBURY Long Range Plan ADD LANES 0096 -XXXX New Road across Old Fairfield Hills Hospital Campus, From Route 6 South to Route 860 0/0 1/1 NEWTOWN NEW ROAD Long Range Plan ADD LANES 29 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL 0014 -XXXX East Haven Town Line to Alps Road (Echlin Road Private) 2/2 2/3 ROUTE 1 BRANFORD Long Range Plan WIDENING 0014 -XXXX Route 146 to Cedar Street 2/2 2/3 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan BRANFORD WIDENING 0014 -XXXX Cedar Street to East Main 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan BRANFORD WIDENING 0014 -XXXX East Main to 1 -95 Exit 55 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan BRANFORD WIDENING 0014 -XXXX I-95 Exit 55 to Leetes Island Road 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan BRANFORD WIDENING 0059 -XXXX Bullard Road extension to Route 77 0/0 1/1 BULLARD RD Long Range Plan GUILFORD WIDENING 30 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL (CONT’D) 0059 -XXXX State Street to Tanner Marsh Road 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan GUILFORD WIDENING 0061 -XXXX Washington Avenue to Route 40 2/2 2/3 ROUTE 10 Long Range Plan HAMDEN WIDENING 0061 -XXXX Route 40 to Todd Street 2/2 2/3 ROUTE 10 Long Range Plan HAMDEN WIDENING 0061 -XXXX Todd Street to Shepard Avenue 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 10 Long Range Plan HAMDEN WIDENING 0061 -XXXX River Street to Cheshire Town Line 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 10 Long Range Plan HAMDEN WIDENING 0061 -XXXX Olds Street (Hamden) to Sackett Point Road 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 5 Long Range Plan HAMDEN, NORTH HAVEN WIDENING 31 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL (CONT’D) 0073 -XXXX New Rail Station near Salemme Lane in Orange N/A ORANGE CCD 2030 Long Range Plan NEW RAIL STATION 0079 -XXXX Wallingford Town Line to Olive Street (Route 71) 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 5 Long Range Plan MERIDEN WIDENING 0083 -XXXX From West of Old Gate Lane to Gulf Street/Clark Street to Route 1 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 162 MILFORD Long Range Plan WIDENING 0092 -0649 Long Wharf access Plan Widen I -95 (in separate project), Eliminate Long Wharf Drive to expand park, add new road from Long Wharf Drive VARIES NEW HAVEN Long Range Plan 0092 -XXXX From Route 63 to Landin Street 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 69 Long Range Plan NEW HAVEN, WOODBRIDGE WIDENING 0092 -XXXX From Dayton Street (NH) to Landin Street (Wdbg) 1/2 2/3 ROUTE 63 Long Range Plan NEW HAVEN, WOODBRIDGE WIDENING 32 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL (CONT’D) 0098 -XXXX From East Haven Town Line to Doral Farms Road and Route 22 to Guilford Town Line 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 80 NORTH BRANFORD Long Range Plan WIDENING 0106 -XXXX From West Haven Town Line to US 1 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 162 Long Range Plan ORANGE WIDENING 0148 -XXXX From South Orchard Street. to Ward Street and Christian Road to Meriden Town Line 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 5 WALLINGFORD Long Range Plan ROUTE 5 0148 -XXXX From Route 71 overpass South of Old Colony Road to Route 68 1/1 1/2 ROUTE 150 WALLINGFORD Long Range Plan ROUTE 5 0156 -XXXX Route 1 to Elm Street 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 122 Long Range Plan WEST HAVEN WIDENING 0156 -XXXX Campbell Avenue to Orange Town Line 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 1 Long Range Plan WEST HAVEN WIDENING 33 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH CENTRAL (CONT’D) 0156 -XXXX Elm Street to Greta Street 2/2 2/3 ROUTE 162 Long Range Plan WEST HAVEN WIDENING 0156 -XXXX Bull Hill Ln to Orange Town Line 1/1 2/2 ROUTE 162 Long Range Plan WEST HAVEN WIDENING VARIOUS TOWNS New Haven/Hartford/Springfield Rail Service Governor’s Transportation Initiative Long Range Plan N/A NEW COMMUTER RAIL SOUTH WESTERN 0035 -XXXX Add Lane from Stamford Exit 8 to Darien Exit 10, Operational Lane 3/3 4/4 I-95 Darien -Stamford Long Range Plan WIDENING 0102 -0269 Upgrade to full interchange at Merritt Parkway (Route 15) BID 01 -09 -08 N/A US 7/RT 15 NORWALK CCD 2030, Long Range Plan UPGRADE EXPRESSWAY 0102 -0297 East Avenue from the vicinity of the I -95 Ramps southerly to the vicinity of Van Zant Street 1/1 2/2 EAST AVE #1 NORWALK WIDENING Long Range Plan 34 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2030 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT SOUTH WESTERN (CONT’D) 0102 -0312 Reconstruction of Interchange 40 Merritt Parkway and Route 7 (Main Avenue). Breakout of 0102 -0269 Phase 1 N/A ROUTE 7/15 NORWALK UPGRADE EXPRESSWAY CCD 2030, Long Range Plan 0102 -XXXX Express Bus/BRT between Norwalk and Greenwich N/A NORWALK -GREENWICH Long Range Plan BRT 35 TABLE 2 LIST OF NETWORK CHANGES (CONT’D) 2040 NETWORK CHANGES NEW MPO DESCRIPTION LANES PROJECT NUMBER FROM TO HIGHWAY NAME TOWN IMPROVEMENT GREATER BRIDGEPORT 0015 -XXXX New Rail Station near Barnum Street in Bridgeport N/A NEW RAIL STATION CCD 2040 Long Range Plan 36 The PM 2.5 inpu t file int o MO VES20 14a for each analysis year con sisted of “annual ave rag e” scenari o. All mont hs were selected for an “a nnual avera ge” evaluation. Approp riate minim um/ma ximu m temp eratures were emp loyed, as well as annu al average FUEL RVP, SPEE D VMT, and DIESEL SULF UR values. Annu al emission facto rs we re ob taine d for each coun ty by roadway clas sifica tion. In add ition, mod el run s incor por ate th e effect of the Emp loyer Commut e Opt ions (EC O) Program in Sou th west Co nn ecticut (Fairfield County). In respo nse to federal leg islation , Conne cticut has restructured the ECO program to emph as ize volunt ary participation , combine d with positive incent ives, to encourage emp loyees to rideshare, use transit and con tinu e to expa nd the ir trip red uction activ ities. In addition , th e program has bee n mad e available to all employers. It is felt that this pro cess is an effective me ans of achieving Connecti cut’s clean air targe ts. Fund ing of this effort und er th e Congestion M itigation and Air Quali ty Improvemen t (CM AQ) prog ram is included in th e TIP for FY 2018 -2021 . It is es timat ed th at this prog ram, if fully succes sful, could red uce VM T and mob ile source emi ssions by 2% in Sout hwest Conne cticut. It should be noted that TIP and LRT P projects, which have negli gible imp act on trip distribu tion and/or highway capacity, have not been incorporated into th e network. These includ e, bu t are not lim ited to, geo me tric improveme nts of existing interchanges, short section s of climbing lanes, interse ctio n improveme nts, transit projects dealing wi th equ ipme nt for existing faciliti es and vehicles, and transit operating assistance. Essentia lly, those projects that do no t im pact th e travel demand forecasts are not includ ed in the netwo rk and/ or analysis. The ne two rk-ba sed travel mo del used for this analysis is the mod el th at CTDOT utilizes for transportation planning, programming and design req uiremen ts. This travel demand mode l u ses demograp hic and land use as sumptions based on the 2010 Census po pulation and C onne cticut Dep artmen t of Labor 201 0 employmen t estimates. Pop ulation and employ men t projection s for th e years 2020, 203 0 and 2040 were de velope d by th e Connecticut De partmen t of Transpo rtation, Travel Deman d and Air Quality M od eling Unit and app roved by all th e regio nal planning agenc ies in early 2012. Th e model uses a constrained equ ilibrium app roa ch to alloca te trips among links. The model was cali brated using 20 13 groun d counts and 20 13 HPM S VM T data. Pe ak hour directio nal traffic volume s were estimated as a percentage of the Average Dail y Traffic (ADT) on a link-by-link basis . Based on automatic traffic recorder data, 9.0 percent, 8.5 percent, 8.0percent and 7.5 percent of th e ADT occurs during the fou r highest hours of the day. A 55:4 5 directio nal split was assumed. Hourly volume s were then converted to Service Flow Levels (SF L) and Vo lume to Capacity (V/ C) ratios calculat ed as follows: 37 SF L = DHV/PHF*N VC = SFL / C whe re: DHV = Directio nal Hourly Vo lume PHF = Peak Hour Factor = 0.9 N = Number of lanes C = Capacity of lane Pe ak pe riod spee ds were estimated from th e 2000 Highway Capacity M anu al based on th e design spee d, facility class, area type and calculat ed V/ C ratio. On th e expresswa y system, Conne cticut- based free flow speed data was av ailable. This data was deeme d more app ropriat e and sup erse ded the ca pacity ma nual speed value s. The ex press way free flow speeds were upd ated in 2005 . For th e off – peak hours, traffic volume is not the controlli ng facto r for vehicle speed. Off-peak link spee ds were based on the Highway Capacity M anual free flow spee ds as a function of facility class and area type. As before, Conn ecticut-based speed data was sub stit uted for exp ressway trav el, whe re availa ble, and was als o updated in 200 5. Two special cas es exist in th e trav el demand modeling process. The se are centroid conn ectors and intrazonal trips.  Centroid conn ectors represe nt the local roads used to gain access to th e model netwo rk from centers of activity in each traffic analysis zon e (TAZ). A spee d of 25 mph is ut ilized for these links.  Intrazonal trips are trips that are too sho rt to get on to the model network. VM T for intrazonal trips is calculat ed based on th e size of each ind ividu al TAZ. A speed of 20 to 24 mph is utili zed for peak period and 25 to 29 mph for off – peak. Th e Dail y Vehicle M iles of Travel (DVM T) is calculat ed using a methodolo gy based on disaggreg ate spee d and summ arized by inventory area, fun ctional classificatio n, and spee d. The annual VM T and speed profiles de veloped by this process are then combined with the em ission factors from th e M OVES 2014 a model to produ ce emission estimates for each scenario and time frame . M OVES 2014 a PM 2.5 and NOx ann ual emis sions by County ma y be found in App end ix B. Th e M OVES 2014 a inpu t files are in App end ix C. Appendix D lists va rious ac ronyms used in the repo rt. In all cas es the transportatio n program and plan meets the requ ired conform ity tests:  For years 201 7 to 2024, Direct PM 2.5 in th e Conn ecticut portion of th e Ne w Yo rk-No rthern Ne w Jerse y-Lo ng Isl and attai nme nt/maintenance area must be less than 575.8 ton s per year. 38  For years 2017 to 2024, NOx in th e Conn ecticu t portio n of the Ne w Yo rk-No rthern Ne w Jerse y-Lo ng Isl and attai nme nt/maintenance area must be less than 12 ,791.8 tons per year.  For year 2025 and sub se qu ent years, Direct PM 2.5 in th e Conn ecticut portion of th e Ne w Yo rk-No rthern Ne w Jers ey-Lo ng Isl and attai nment/maintenance area must be less than 516.0 tons pe r year.  In year 2025 and sub sequ ent years, NOx in th e Conne cticut portio n of th e Ne w Yo rk- No rthern Ne w Jersey -Lo ng Isl and attai nme nt/maintenance area must be less than 9,728.1 tons pe r year. This analysis in no way reflects th e full benefit on air quality from th e transportatio n plan and program . The network-based modeling process is capable of as sessing the impact of majo r ne w highway or transit ser vice. It does not reflect the impact from th e many projects, which are categ oricall y ex clud ed from th e requ irement of confo rm ity. These projects includ e nu mer ous im provements to inters ections, which will allow traffic to flow more efficiently, thu s redu cing de lay, fue l usa ge and emissions. Includ ed in the TIP, but not reflected in this analysis , are many projects to maintai n existing rai l and bu s systems . Wi thout these projects, those system s could not offer th e high level of ser vice the y do . W ith them, the mas s transit systems fun ctio n more efficiently, improve safety, and provide a more dependable and aestheticall y app eali ng servi ce. These advantages will retai n existing patrons and attract add itio nal riders to the system . Th e techno logy to quantify the air quality benefits from these program s is not currently availa ble. As sho wn in this analysis, tra nsportatio n emiss ions are de clining dramati call y and will continu e to do so. This is primarily du e to programs such as reform ulat ed fuels, enhanced inspectio n and maintenance programs , stage two va por recovery (area source), the low emissions veh icles (LEV) program , and th e Tier 2 / Sulfur-in-Ga s redu ctio n program . M OVES2014a includes there new em iss ion control program s ass ociated with regulation promulgated since the re lea se of M OVES2010b:  Tier 3 emiss ion standar ds that phase in beginning in 2017 for cars , light-duty truck s, m edium -du ty pass enger vehicles, and some hea vy-duty trucks, and Tier 3 fuel standards th at re quire lower sulfu r gas oling beg inning in 2017 .  Hea vy-du ty engine and vehicle greenhouse ga s (GHG) re gulations that phase in during model years 20 14-2018.  The second phase of light-dut y vehicle GHG re gulations that phase in for mo del 39 year s 2017 -20 25 cars and light truck s. M OVES2014a estimates exhaust and evapo rative emissions as well as brake and tire wear emission s from all type s of on-road vehicles. M OVES2014a also uses a vehicle classification system based on the way vehicles a re clas sified in th e FHW A’s High way Performance M on itoring Sy stem (HPMS). Other parameters include vehicle miles traveled (VMT ) by vehicle and road type, vehicle hou rs traveled (VHT) by vehicle and road type, the numbe r of each type of vehicle in th e fleet, vehicle age distribut ion , model year, travel spe ed, roadway type, fuel information , meteor ological data, such as ambient tempe ratur e and hu midity, and applicable cont rol measures such as reformulated gasoline (RFG) and inspe ction and mainten ance (I/M ). Local inpu ts were coo peratively developed by CTDE EP and CTDOT, where app lica ble, using EP A Recomme nde d methods .3 Changes in th e transportation system will not produ ce significant emiss ions redu ctions be ca use of the massive ex isting rail , bus, highway systems , and land development already in place. Ch ange in these aspects is always at the mar gin, producing very small impacts. 10) ANAL YSIS RESUL TS As part of th e red esignation request, th e State submi tted a mainte nance plan as req uired by se ction 175A of the Clean Air Act. Elemen ts of th e section 175A mainte nance plan includ e a con tingency plan and an obliga tion to submit a sub sequ ent mainte nance plan revision as req uired by th e Clean Air Act. The PM 2.5 maint enance plan also establishes 2017 and 2025 M VEBs for the Ar ea. Con necticut is establishing 2017 MV EBs of 575.8 to ns per year (tpy) for direct PM 2.5 and 12,79 1.8 tp y for NOX, and 2025 M VEBs of 516 tpy for direct PM 2.5 and 9,728.1tp y for NOX, for the Sout hwestern CT Ar ea for mainten ance of th e 19 97 ann ual and 2006 24 – hour PM 2.5 standards. The emissions analysis re sults for the Connecticut portion of the Ne w Yo rk-No rthern Ne w Jerse y-Lo ng Island multi-state attainment/mainte nance area are presen ted in Table 3 on the next pa ge. 3 “MOVE S201 4 and MOVES2 014a Technical Gui dance: Us ing MOV ES to Prepare Emission Inventori es for State Impl eme ntation Pla ns and Tra nsport ation Con formity”, EPA-42 0-B-15-093. November 2015 40 Table 3: Direct PM 2.5 and NOx Emission Budget Test Results (tons per year) Series 31C Bud gets Difference Ye ar Direct PM 2.5 NO x Direct PM 2.5 NO x Direct PM 2.5 NOx 2018 284.1 7,192.7 575 .8 12, 791. 8 -291.7 -5,599.1 202 5 202.3 4,361.8 516 .0 9,728. 1 -313.7 -5,366.3 203 5 154.4 2,726.3 516 .0 9,728. 1 -361.6 -7,001.8 204 0 144.6 2,572.0 516 .0 9,728. 1 -371.4 -7,156.1 11) CON CLUSION This em issions analy sis transpo rtatio n conform ity has been dem onstrated for th e Conn ecticut portio n of the NY -NJ-CT PM 2.5 Attai nment/Mai ntenance Ar ea based upon the direct PM 2.5 and the NOx emis sion bud ge ts for 2017 and 20 25 effective as of February 20, 2013 . The region has attained National Am bient Air Qualit y Sta nd ards and EP A pub lished its approva l of th e PM 2.5 redesignatio n reque st, establishing October 24, 2013 as the effective date of redesignatio n to attai nme nt for Conn ecticut ’s portio n of th e NY-NJ-CT Area for both th e 1997 annual and 2006 24- hour PM 2.5 NAA QS. Pleas e direct any questions you ma y have on the air quality emission analysis to: Conn ecticut Department of Transportatio n Bureau of Policy and Pla nn ing Division of Coo rdina tio n, M odeling and Crash Data – Unit 5753 1 2800 Berlin Turnp ike Ne wi ngton, CT. 06111 (860) 594-2032 Ema il: Jud y.Raymond @ ct.go v 41 APPE NDIX A Inte ragency Consultation Me eting Minutes 42 IN TERAGEN CY CONSU LTATION MEETI NG Stat ewide T ransport ation Impro vement Program Co nne cticut Departm ent of Transportat ion Ro om 2307 – February 7 , 20 17 Go To Meeting Atten dees : Eloise Powell – FHW A Ken Shooshan-Stoller, FHW A Leah Sirmin – FTA Ariel Garcia – EPA Je nnifer Carrier – CRCO G C a r a R a d z i n s – CRCOG R o b A l o i s e – CRC OG Mark Nielson – CN VMPO Christian Meyer – CN VMP O Ben Muller – CNVMPO Meghan Sloan – CT Metro COG Robert Haramut – LCRV CO G Stephen Dudley –SCRCOG Chris Rappa – SCRC OG Ri cha rd Guggenheim – SECC OG Kate Rattan – SECCOG Rob Sachnin – W es tern COG Mari beth W ojenski – CTDOT Ju dy Raymond – CTDO T Robbin Cabelus – CTDOT Roxane Fromson – CTDOT Grayson W right – CTDO T Sara Radacsi – CTDO T Matthew Cegielski- CTDOT Rya n Dolan – CTDOT Greg Pacelli – CTDOT Kara Chandler – CTDOT 43 Th e Interagency Consu ltation Meeting was held to review projec ts su bmitted for the 2018 – 2021 STIP. Both the Ozo ne and PM 2.5 reports will be elect ronica lly distributed to the MPOs in the appropriate Nonattainment/Maintenance areas, FTA, FHW A, DEE P an d EP A. The MP Os will nee d to hold a 30 da y public comm ent and review period. At the end of this review period , the MP O will h old a Policy Board meeting to endorse the Air Quality Con formity determination. There was also a brief discuss ion on the trav el mo del an d emissions software planning assumptions emp loyed in the conform ity analysis. Th e sch edule for the 2018 -2021 Regional Transp ortation Impro vem ent Plans Conform ity Determina tion Analysis is as follow:  MPOs transmit signed and dated Concurrence Form to judy.raymond@ ct.gov by F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 201 7.  CTDOT Travel Demand Model Unit perform s the air quality analysis an d se nds the Air Qu ality Conformity Determina tion Reports electronica lly to all MPOs in e a r ly s umme r 20 17  MPOs adve rtise and hold a 30 -da y public rev iew an d co mm ent pe riod for the Air Qu ality Conformity.  MPOs hold a Policy Board meeting approving an d endo rsing the Air Quality Conformity and transmit resolutions to judy.raymond@ct.gov after Policy Board meeting . It is importan t tha t all MPOs follow this schedule to ensu re that the TIP/STIP Con formity Determ inations can go forward on schedule. 44 PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS Ozone and PM2.5 2018 -2021 Statewide Transportation Improvement Program February 7, 2017 Planning Assumptions for Review Frequency of Review * Responsible Agency Year of Data Socioeconomic Data At least every 5 years CTDOT 2010 Census Data available 2012 DMV Vehicle Registration Data At least every 5 years CTDEEP 2011 Data available 2012 State Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Program Each conformity round CTDEEP Same as currently approved I&M SIP State Low Emission Vehicle Program Each conformity round following approval into the SIP CTDEEP Same as SIP VMT Mix Data At least every 5 years CTDEEP 2010** Analysis Years – PM 2.5 Each conformity round CTDOT/CTDEEP 2018, 2025, 2035, 2040 Analysis Years – Ozone Each conformity round CTDOT/CTDEEP 2018, 2025, 2035, 2040 Emission Budget – PM2.5 As SIP revised/updated CTDEEP 2017 / 2025 PM 2.5 Emission Budget – Ozone As SIP revised/updated CTDEEP 2009 SW 2017 Gr.CT Temperatures and Humidity As SIP revised/updated CTDEEP X Control Strategies Each conformity round CTDEEP X HPMS VMT Each conformity round CTDOT 2013 * Review of Planning Assumptions does not necessarily prelude an update or calibration of the travel demand model. ** Data not available until 2011 45 APPE NDIX B PM 2.5 A ND NOx PR ECURSOR EM ISSION OUTPUTS BY ANALYSIS YE AR 46 MOVES2014a 2018 County Summary: County Total Energy Consumption Pollutant Emission Quantities (Tons/Day) 91 NOx PM 2.5 (Joules/Day) 3 110 116 117 County Oxides of Nitrogen Engine Exhaust Breakwear Tirewear Total Fairfield 4.11827E+16 3586.62256 106.55599 24.77817942 11.09023355 142.42441 New Haven 4.09128E+16 3606.08619 107.63560 23.09482299 10.93306084 141.66348 Totals 8.20955E+16 7192.70875 214.19159 47.87300 22.02329 284.08789 MOVES2014a 2025 County Summary: County Total Energy Consumption Pollutant Emission Quantities (Tons/Day) 91 NOx PM 2.5 (Joules/Day) 3 110 116 117 County Oxides of Nitrogen Engine Exhaust Breakwear Tirewear Total Fairfield 3.52662E+16 2160.90967 64.00689 26.31050899 11.59185784 101.90926 New Haven 3.53198E+16 2200.86379 64.07627 24.81785853 11.5051571 100.39929 Totals 7.0586E+16 4361.77346 128.08316 51.12837 23.09701 202.30855 MOVES2014a 2035 County Summary: County Total Energy Consumption Pollutant Emission Quantities (Tons/Day) 91 NOx PM 2.5 (Joules/Day) 3 110 116 117 County Oxides of Nitrogen Engine Exhaust Breakwear Tirewear Total Fairfield 2.96699E+16 1311.95123 35.35190 28.14450918 12.16987 75.66628 New Haven 3.1165E+16 1414.39240 36.81089 29.27745982 12.63104337 78.71939 Totals 6.08349E+16 2726.34363 72.16278 57.42197 24.80091 154.38567 MOVES2014a 2040 County Summary: County Total Energy Consumption Pollutant Emission Quantities (Tons/Day) 91 NOx PM 2.5 (Joules/Day) 3 110 116 117 County Oxides of Nitrogen Engine Exhaust Breakwear Tirewear Total Fairfield 2.90795E+16 1231.66300 29.59599 28.6206817 12.31633363 70.53301 New Haven 3.0721E+16 1340.38513 31.07283 30.073911 12.85454305 74.00128 Totals 5.98005E+16 2572.04813 60.66882 58.69459 25.17088 144.53429 47 APPE NDIX C PM2.5 and N Ox INPUT FILES TO M OVES201 4a 48 2018 Fairfield 49 51 54 55 2018 New Haven 56 58 61 62 2025 Fairfield 63 65 68 69 2025 New Haven 70 72 75 76 2035 Fairfield 77 79 82 83 2035 New Haven 84 86 89 90 2040 Fairfield 91 93 96 97 2040 New Haven 98 100 103 104 APPE NDIX D ACRO NYMS 105 Acron yms Acronym Me aning CA AA Cle an Air Act Am endments (1990) CO Carbon Mon oxide COG Coun cil of Gov ernm ent CTD OT Conn ecticut Departm ent of Trans portation CT DEEP Conn ecticut Departm ent of Env ironme ntal Prot ection EPA U.S. En viron me ntal Protec tion A gency FSD Final S cope Developm ent (Now PD) ISTEA Inte rmodal Surface Trans po rtation E fficien cy Act MA P-21 Moving Ah ead for Pro gress in the 21 st Centu ry Act MO VES Mobile Vehicle Emission Simulator MPO Met ropolitan Pl anning Organization NAAQS Nation al Ambient Air Quality Sta ndards NH 3 Ammonia NOx Ni tro gen Oxides PD Pr eliminary Design (Forme rly FSD) PDWP Pr oject D evelopm ent W ork Pro gram PM 2.5 Fine Particulate Matt er PMT Person M iles T raveled RA Regional Admi nist er ROP Rate of Pro gress RTP Regional Transp ortation Plan (generally refers to Regional Transp ortation Plan Upd ate) SA FETEA-LU Safe, Accoun table, Flexible, Effici ent T ransport ation Equi ty Act: A Legacy for Us ers SD Stu dy and D evelopme nt SIP State Impl eme ntation Plan SOx Sulfur Oxides STIP St atewide Transpo rtation Improv eme nt Pro gram TCM Transpo rtation Co ntrol Me asure TIP Transpo rtation Improv ement Pro gram USDOT U.S. D epartm ent of Transport ation USEPA U.S. En viron me ntal Protec tion A gency VMT Vehicle M iles T raveled VOC Vol atile Organic Comp ound